From time to time we read reports of people who have recovered from
serious or normally fatal illnesses thanks to what appears to be
miraculous intervention. Sometimes this is ascribed to healing,
sometimes to prayer, but there is always the implication that something
paranormal has occurred, which is often attributed to divine influence. A
recent example reported in the British Medical Journal will
serve as an example of the kind of thing I have in mind (Westcott R,
Dr Westcott is a GP who describes himself as an atheist doctor and wants
to know how he should respond to what happened to one of his patients.
This was Jim, a non-religious man suffering from asbestosis which he had
acquired as a result of his work as a submarine engineer. Then he was
diagnosed with a mesothelioma of the chest wall.
This is a well-known complication of asbestosis, and is a malignant
tumour which is regarded as invariably fatal. Radiotherapy had little
effect and Jim was becoming weaker. His wife decided that they should go
for a Mediterranean holiday, and they picked the Greek island of
Kefallinia. While there they visited a monastery. An old nun singled Jim
out and and asked him what his illness was. She took him to a priest,
who performed some kind of prayer or ritual involving some holy relics.
Immediately after this Jim felt stronger, and his recovery continued.
The tumour is now no longer apparent and Jim appears to be in remission,
though Dr Westcott is still concerned that he may relapse later. (Dr
Westcott has told me that this did happen.)
Sceptics who are confronted with cases of this kind generally take
refuge in two kinds of objection: either the original diagnosis was
wrong or the cure was due to the conventional treatment the patient had
received previously. Neither of these seems likely to apply in the
present case, nor in a number of others. So does this mean that we must
accept that divine intervention, or at least paranormal healing, is a
reality? Do miracles really occur? Cases like that reported by Dr
Westcott certainly provide food for thought, but before accepting them
as proof positive of the miraculous, I think we need to look a little
more closely at what they actually tell us.
Why do apparent miracles so often relate to cancer?
I find it interesting that the majority of claims for miraculous cures
concern recovery from cancer. These are certainly highly impressive and
dramatic and to many people seem to provide incontrovertible evidence
for a miracle. But how often does cancer remit spontaneously outwith a
Do spontaneous cancer cures occur?
I carried out a search via Medline for reports of spontaneous remissions
of cancer (that is, remissions occurring without treatment or with
inadequate treatment). This produced some twenty-odd papers on the
subject; there are doubtless many more to be found. Among the cancers
reported to have remitted spontaneously are:
adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma
(Takezako et al., 2000)
adult T-cell leukaemia (Murakawa M et al., 1990)
oesophageal leiomyosarcoma (Takemura et al.,
lung cancer following myxoedematous coma (Hercbergs, 1999)
hepatocellular carcinoma (2 cases; Magalotti et al., 1998)
non-small-cell lung cancer (Kappauf et al., 1997)
lung metastases from primary uterine cancer (Mastall H, 1997)
liver cancer (Van Halteren HK et al., 1997)
pleural and intrapulmonary metastases from renal carcinoma (Lokich J, 1997)
squamous cell lung cancer (Schmidt W., 1995)
bladder cancer (Hellstrom PA et al., 1992)
intrahepatic, peritoneal and splenic metastases after hepatectomy for
hepatocellular carcinoma (Terasaki et al., 2000)
disappearance of lung metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma
(Toyoda et al., 1999)
large-cell and polymorphic lung cancer with extensive metastatic
disease (Kappauf H. et al., 1997)
metastatic malignant melanoma (Hurwitz PJ. 1991); several similar
cases cited in the literature
As this undoubtedly incomplete list indicates, spontaneous remission of
cancer, though very rare, does occur and is well authenticated outside a
religious context. This will probably come as a surprise to many
people, including some doctors. How do such events come about?
Possible mechanisms of cure in cancer
A number of papers discuss possible mechanisms by which spontaneous
remission of cancer might occur. The most popular suggestion is some
form of immunological reaction, though this is still unproven (Lokich J,
1997; Heim ME, Kobele C, 1995). There seems to be a connection between
fever and remission of cancer (Murakawa M et al., 1990); fever in
childhood or adulthood may protect against the later onset of cancer and
spontaneous remissions are often preceded by feverish infections (Kleef
R et al., 2001). The case of remission following myxoedema coma
(Hercbergs A, 1999) suggests that hypothyroidism may trigger apoptosis
(cell death) in tumours. Yet another idea is that DNA methylation, which
is involved in cell differentiation, may play a part (Sugimura T,
Ushijama T, 2000). And there is a long-standing impression that
psychological states influence the functioning of the immune system.
Note added 24 January 2014: A cell biologist, Uwe Hobohm, believes
it is time to revive an old idea: the treatment of cancer by means of
fever. This was done, apparently successfully, in the nineteenth
century. Hobohm discusses the immunological basis for the treatment in
New Scientist ('Hot, toxic and healing': 4 January 2014).
Hobohm and his colleagues are currently testing the idea in mice.
In summary, then, while the mechanisms of spontaneous remission are by
no means fully understood, there are plausible suggestions to explain
Limits to the miraculous?
What emerges from the cases I have cited is that if we divide diseases
into those that may, no matter how rarely, recover spontaneously and
those that do not, we must place cancer in the "may recover" category.
This means that cancer cures, no matter how gratifying to patients who
experience them and to their relatives, are not necessarily miraculous.
They lie within the boundaries of the natural world.
What, then, would count as a genuine miracle, an event that could not
be accommodated within the realm of the natural? It is of course
difficult to set limits on what can occur naturally, but I think an
example of something which, if it happened, would certainly have to be
taken as miraculous would be regrowth of an amputated finger or limb.
If this seems a lot to ask, how about something seemingly simpler? An
optic nerve damaged by glaucoma never recovers its function in the
ordinary course of events; sight lost through glaucoma is lost for good.
If sight were restored in a reliably diagnosed glaucomatous eye, that
would certainly count as a miracle in my opinion (I'd certainly like it
to happen to me). But to my knowledge no such case has been reported.
These are just two examples out of many; what we need for a "genuine"
miracle is recovery from some accident or illness in which no
spontaneous cure has ever been shown to occur. But cancer doesn't fit
I therefore think that, although there are well-attested instances of
spontaneous recovery from cancer within a religious or paranormal
context, this is not convincing evidence for divine intervention. The
fact that a patient recovers after having been prayed for does not prove
that the prayer was responsible for the recovery.
Alternative explanations for apparent miraculous cures of cancer
It could be coincidence. We do not know how many patients
suffering from cancer are prayed for but the proportion is probably
considerable. We do not normally hear about those for whom the prayers
are not answered. If very many patients are prayed for, it is possible
that among these there will by chance be some who recover spontaneously
but who would have done so even if they had not been prayed for.
Role of immune system
If as seems likely the immune system is involved in spontaneous
remissions of cancer, the known influence of the nervous system on the
immune system could explain why the patient's beliefs and emotional
state might on occasion bring about a remission. The fact that a
patient had no conscious expectation of cure (as in the case reported by
Dr Westcott) does not negate a possible influence of this kind.
God uses normal means to produce his miracles
A believer in miracles could argue that even apparently
spontaneous remissions are really miraculous. Perhaps God works his
miracles through "normal" physiological pathways rather than by
suspending the ordinary laws of physiology, and perhaps he refrains
from curing glaucoma and regenerating amputated limbs in order to keep
us guessing, or because he does not want to force our belief. This is
logically possible but unverifiable and so can be neglected in a
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